Simmering

Simmering is a food preparation technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just below the boiling point of water[1] (which is 100 C or 212 F at average sea level air pressure), but higher than poaching temperature. To keep a pot simmering, one brings it to a boil and then reduces the heat to a point where the formation of bubbles has all but ceased, typically a water temperature of about 94 C (200 F).

In food preparation Simmering ensures gentler treatment than boiling to prevent food from toughening and/or breaking up. Simmering is usually a rapid and efficient method of cooking. Food that has simmered in milk or cream instead of water is referred to as creamed. The appropriate simmering temperature is a topic of debate among chefs, with some contending that a simmer is as low as 82 C (180 F).[2] In Japanese cuisine, simmering is considered one of the four essential cooking techniques.[citation needed] Simmering with soy sauce flavored with anise and other spices is common[citation needed]. Everything from eggs to tripe to tofu is often "simmered" in this way[citation needed]. Food prepared in a crockpot is by definition simmered. Examples include stews, chili, soups, etc. Some modern gas ranges are equipped with a simmering burner, with such burners usually located at the rear of the range. Many electric ranges have a simmer setting. Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy".[1] Cream produced by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color, cream. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.