Grilling

Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below. Grilling usually involves a significant amount of direct, radiant heat, and tends to be used for cooking meat quickly and meat that has already been sliced (or other pieces). Food to be grilled is cooked on a grill (an open wire grid such as a gridiron with a heat source above or below), a grill pan (similar to a frying pan, but with raised ridges to mimic the wires of an open grill), or griddle (a flat plate heated from below).[1] Heat transfer to the food when using a grill is primarily via thermal radiation. Heat transfer when using a grill pan or griddle is by direct conduction. In the United States and Canada, when the heat source for grilling comes from above, grilling is termed broiling.[2] In this case, the pan that holds the food is called a broiler pan, and heat transfer is by thermal radiation. Direct heat grilling can expose food to temperatures often in excess of 260 C (500 F). Grilled meat acquires a distinctive roast aroma from a chemical process called the Maillard reaction. The Maillard reaction only occurs when foods reach temperatures in excess of 155 C (310 F).[3] Studies have shown that cooking beef, pork, poultry, and fish at high temperatures can lead to the formation of heterocyclic amines, benzopyrenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are carcinogens.[4][5][6] Marination may reduce the formation of these compounds.[7] Grilling is often presented as a healthy alternative to cooking with oil, although the fat and juices lost by grilling can contribute to drier food.

Asia In Japanese cities, a yakitori cart, restaurant, or shop with charcoal-fired grills and marinated grilled meat on a stick can often be found. Yakiniku, is a type of food where meat and/or vegetables are grilled directly over small charcoal or gas grills at high temperatures (this style of cooking has become widely popular throughout Asia).In Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, a popular food item from food vendors is satay, marinated meat on a bamboo skewer grilled over a charcoal fire and served with peanut (sate) sauce. Japanese traditional portable charcoal grill "Shichirin" Yakitori being grilled In Germany, the most prominent outdoor form of grilling is by using charcoal in a kettle. Besides charcoal, sometimes gas and electric heat sources are used, too. Other methods are used less frequently. Risks of grilling As is true of any high-temperature frying or baking,[11] when meat is grilled at high temperatures, the cooking process can generate carcinogenic chemicals.[11][11][12]) Two processes are thought to be responsible. Heterocyclic amines - "HCAs are formed when amino acids, sugars, and creatine react at high temperatures."[11] Additionally, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - "PAHs are formed when fat and juices from meat grilled directly over an open fire drip onto the fire, causing flames. These flames contain PAHs that then adhere to the surface of the meat. PAHs can also be formed during other food preparation processes, such as smoking of meats."[11] However it is possible to significantly reduce carcinogens when grilling meat, or mitigate their effect. * Garlic, rosemary, basil, mint, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, olive oil, cherries, and vitamin E have been shown to reduce formation of both HCAs and PCAs[12]. Another method is pre-cooking the meat in the microwave, then draining meat juices so they do not fall onto flames, preventing release of PCAs.[12] Side dishes and drinks rich in antioxidants, such as tea, have also been shown to neutralize the toxins by mixing in one's stomach Grilled bratwurst In Argentina and Uruguay, both asado (beef roasted on a fire) and steak a la parrilla (beefsteak cooked on traditional grill) are staple dishes and even hailed as national specialities. [edit]UK, Commonwealth and Ireland In the United Kingdom, Commonwealth countries and Ireland, grilling generally refers to cooking food directly under a source of direct, dry heat. The "grill" is usually a separate part of an oven where the food is inserted just under the element.[8] This practice is referred to as "broiling" in North America. In Australia, grilling can refer to cooking food directly under a source of direct heat or with heat from below, as in the US. In electric ovens, grilling may be accomplished by placing the food near the upper heating element, with the lower heating element off and the oven door partially open. Grilling in an electric oven may create a large amount of smoke and cause splattering in the oven.[9] Gas ovens often have a separate compartment for grilling, such as a drawer below the flame.